Bài Tập Bổ Trợ Tiếng Anh 12 Unit 4 Urbanisation Có Đáp Án

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UNIT 4: URBANISATION

TỪ VỰNG

STT Từ vựng Từ loại Phiên âm Nghĩa
1. high-rise adj /ˈhaɪ raɪz/ cao tầng
2. urban adj /ˈɜːbən/ thuộc về đô thị
3. urban sprawl n.p /ˈɜːbən sprɔːl/ sự bành trướng đô thị
4. urbanisation n /ˌɜːbənaɪˈzeɪʃn/ đô thị hoá
5. leisure n /ˈleʒə(r)/ sự giải trí, sự thư giãn
6. convenience store n /kənˈviːniəns stɔː(r)/ cửa hàng tiện lợi
7. convenient adj /kənˈviːniənt/ thuận tiện
8. crowded adj /ˈkraʊdɪd/ đông đúc
9. rush hour n.p /ˈrʌʃ aʊə(r)/ giờ cao điểm
10. afford v /əˈfɔːd/ có đủ khả năng chi trả
11. housing n /ˈhaʊzɪŋ/ nhà ở
12. expand v /ɪkˈspænd/ mở rộng
13. seek v /siːk/ tìm kiếm
14. unemployment n /ˌʌnɪmˈplɔɪmənt/ tình trạng thất nghiệp
15. affordable adj /əˈfɔːdəbl/ (giá cả) rẻ, phải chăng
16. infrastructure n /ˈɪnfrəstrʌktʃə(r)/ cơ sở hạ tầng
17. resident n /ˈrezɪdənt/ người dân
18. colonial adj /kəˈləʊniəl/ thuộc địa, thuộc dân
19. gradually adv /ˈɡrædʒuəli/ dần dần
20. modernise v /ˈmɒdənaɪz/ hiện đại hoá
21. concern n /kənˈsɜːn/ mối lo ngại
22. rapidly adv /ˈræpɪdli/ rất nhanh, với tốc độ cao
23. reliable adj /rɪˈlaɪəbl/ đáng tin cậy

NGỮ PHÁP

1. Thì hiện tại hoàn thành

– Thì hiện tại hoàn thành được dùng để diễn tả hành động xảy ra trong quá khứ và vẫn còn kéo dài tới hiện tại, hoặc hành động vừa mới xảy ra gần đây.

Ex: Our family has lived here since I was born.

– Ta cũng dùng thì hiện tại hoàn thành để diễn tả số lần xảy ra của một sự việc với cấu trúc

It/This/That + be + the first/second time + S + have/has + past participle.

Ex: This is the first time I have travelled by plane.

– Ta cũng dùng thì hiện tại hoàn thành để diễn tả trải nghiệm đặc biệt với cấu trúc:

It/This/That/Noun or Gerund phrase + be + the best/the worst/the only/the most beautiful/ … +S + have/has (ever) + past participle.

Ex: Moving to the capital city is the worst choice I have ever made in my life.

2. Cấu trúc so sánh

2. 1. So sánh càng ngày càng

Tính từ/trạng từ ngắn Tính từ/trạng từ dài
Housing prices are getting higher and higher. Hanoi is becoming more and more polluted.

2.2 So sánh càng … càng

The + so sánh hơn + S + V, the + so sánh hơn +S+V.

Ex: The bigger the city gets, the more crowded it becomes.

PRACTICE

Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word whose underlined part differs from the other three in pronunciation in each of the following questions.

Question 1. A. concern B. affordable C. convenience D. colonial

Question 2. A. high-rise B. modernise C. housing D. sprawl

Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word that differs from the other three in the position of the primary stress in each of the following questions.

Question 3. A. afford B. housing C. leisure D. urban

Question 4. A. convenient B. employment C. expansion D. resident

Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions.

Question 5. The city’s_____needs upgrading to meet the demands from its citizens.

A. leisure        B. convenience        C. infrastructure        D. unemployment

Question 6. Youth crime in the inner city has increased_____in recent months, requiring tightened security.

A. reliably        B. affordably        C. conveniently        D. rapidly

Question 7. Air pollution and traffic congestion are two major_____among city dwellers.

A. concerns        B. residents        C. unemployment        D. Infrastructure

Question 8. The urban_____can threaten the unique charm of the countryside.

A. unemployment        B. housing        C. leisure        D. sprawl

Question 9. Traffic in the_____is a nightmare for commuters.

A. resident        B. rush hour        C. urbanisation        D. concern

Question 10. Many fresh graduates are struggling to_____a nine-to-five job.

A. expand        B. seek        C. afford        D. modernise

Question 11. The municipal authority is implementing new policies to address affordable _____shortages.

A. housing        B. resident        C. concern        D. infrastructure

Question 12. This is the first time Henry_____Ho Chi Minh’s Mausoleum.

A. visited        B. visits        C. has visited        D. had visited

Question 13. The well is getting_____polluted, forcing villagers to seek alternative clean water sources.

A. much and more        B. much and much        C. most and most        D. more and more

Question 14. The higher property prices are,_____city dwellers can afford.

A. the fewest        B. fewer than        C. the fewer        D. the fewer than

Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word(s) OPPOSITE in meaning to the underlined bold word(s) in each of the following questions.

Question 15. Many old apartments in this part of the city need modernising; they are in danger of collapsing anytime soon.

A. upgrading        B. destroying        C. renovating        D. developing

Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word(s) CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined bold word(s) in each of the following questions.

Question 16. City dwellers prefer to travel by elevated railway because it is reliableand affordable.

A. dependable        B. inconvenient        C. realistic        D. temporary

Read the following flyer and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct option that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 17 to 19.

EXPLORE THE EVOLUTION OF CITY LIFE AT OUR EXHIBITION!

– Compare past and present urban (17)

– Discover the cultural shifts and (18) advancements

– Engage (19) interactive exhibits showcasing modern urban innovations Date:

March 15th – March 30th, 2024

Lecation: City Museum, 123 Main Street, Anytown

Question 17. A. purposes        B. intentions        C. landscapes        D. challenges

Question 18. A. technologist B. technologically        C. technology        D. technological

Question 19. A. for        B. with        C. to        D. Of

Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct arrangement of the sentences to make a meaningful letter for the following question.

Question 20.

a) However, the fast pace can be overwhelming at times.

b) Firstly, the diversity here is astounding; you encounter people from all walks of life daily.

c) Warm regards.

d) Dear Laura, I hope you are well.

e) Looking forward to catching up soon!

f) Overall, the experience has been enriching, pushing me out of my comfort zone while teaching me valuable lessons about adaptability.

g) Secondly, the opportunities for growth and exploration are endless.

h) Living in a big city has been exciting.

A. d – b – a – g – f – h – e – c        B. d – h – a – b – g – f – e – c

C. d – h – b – g – a – f – e – c        D. d – h – b – g – f – a – e – c

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D to choose the word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 21 to 25.

Hanoi is a modern city with a population of over 8 million people. Over the years, the urban area has gradually (21)_____to over 3,000 sq km including many of the surrounding villages. As rural (22)_____move into Ha Noi, the government is providing more affordable housing. More high-rise buildings have also been built. Ha Noi has improved its transport infrastructure, building new roads and bridges. It is modernising bus services using more electric ones. The Ha Noi Metro opened to the public in 2021 and is (23) _____ to include more lines by 2030.

(24) _____, urbanisation has created new problems. As more people come to seek better job opportunities, the city is getting more and more crowded. This has (25)_____to more traffic jams and higher unemployment rates. Air pollution is also causing concern among city residents.

(Adapted from Global Success)

Question 21. A. afforded B. expanded C. modernised D. concerned

Question 22. A. housing B. concerns C. residents D. convenience

Question 23. A. expected B. affected C. imagined D. structured

Question 24. A. Therefore B. In addition C. However D. For example

Question 25. A. related B. resulted C. led D. complied

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 26 to 30.

Urbanisation in Malaysia started in the early 1970s. At that time, only around 26 per cent of the population lived in urban areas. After a period of rapid growth, the urban and rural populations were almost equal in the early 1990s. Since then, the urbanisation rate has continued to increase gradually. The urban population, for example, rose from 66 per cent in 2004 to 74 per cent in 2014. At present, Malaysia is known as one of the most urbanised countries in East Asia. It is also one of the most rapidly urbanised regions around the world. According to the latest statistics, over 77 per cent of Malaysia’s total population now live in urban areas and cities.

Australia is an interesting example of early urbanisation, which started at the end of the 19th century. At that time, over 60 per cent of the population lived in urban areas. Since then, it has maintained a gradual growth. This was also due to the country’s immigration policy, which encouraged people to settle in its coastal, urban areas. Australia is now one of the most urbanised countries in the world, with almost 90 per cent of the population living in urban areas. The two largest cities of Australia, Sydney and Melbourne, are home to over 40 per cent of the country’s population.

(Adapted from Global Success)

Question 26. What does the passage mainly discuss?

A. Challenges facing urbanised Malaysia and Australia

B. The brief history of Malaysia and Australia

C. Urbanisation in Malaysia and Australia

D. Housing problems in Malaysia and Australia

Question 27. The word rose in paragraph 1 is opposite in meaning to _        .

A. increased        B. developed        C. evolved        D. declined

Question 28. According to paragraph 1, Malaysia        .

A. is the most urbanised country in East Asia

B. has only 26% of its population living in urban areas

C. has witnessed a decrease in the urbanisation rate

D. is one of the most rapidly urbanised countries in the world

Question 29. The word its in paragraph 2 refers to        .

A. immigration policy        B. a gradual growth

C. early urbanisation        D. Australia

Question 30. Which of the following is NOT true according to paragraph 2?

A. Australia’s immigration policy contributed to the growth of its urban population.

B. Urbanisation in Australia started at the end of the 19th century.

C. There are nearly 60 per cent of people living in urban areas in Australia.

D. Sydney and Melbourne are the two most crowded cities in Australia.

ĐÁP ÁN

1 2 3 4 5
B D A D C
6 7 8 9 10
D A D B B
11 12 13 14 15
A A D C C
16 17 18 19 20
A C D B C
21 22 23 24 25
B C A C C
26 27 28 29 30
C D D D C
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